Authors

Department of Rural Sociology and Extension, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria

Abstract

 





 





Beekeeping as a technology package disseminated to target farmers in Nigeria seems to suffer setbacks ranging from negative perception of farmers about the technology to technical contents of the package. This study therefore analyzes the technology attributes that influence non adoption of apiary technology packages in Cross River State, Nigeria. Purposive and multistage random sampling techniques were used to select sixty (60) apiary farmers. Data for the study were collected through a structured questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics such as; frequency counts, mean scores and percentages and inferential statistics (bivariate probit analysis). The socio-economic characteristics of the farmers indicate that majority (93.33%) of the farmers were males, with mean age of 38.50 years, mean farming experience of 11.5 years, mean annual farm income of N175, 500 (973.97USD) and mean number of 9 hives. The result also revealed that the farmers adopted apiary technology packages such as; setting of hive (    =3.6) and baiting of bee hives (    =3.1) with mean adoption score of 2.5 and an adoption index of 32%. The result of bivariate probit regression estimates showed that coefficients for complexity of technology, adaptability of technology and technical competency influenced non adoption of apiary technologies by farmers in the study area. The study therefore recommends increase in number of extension contacts, cooperative formation and adequate campaign on beekeeping to facilitate adoption of apiary technologies in the study area.

Keywords

1) Abubakar, J. K. (2011). A Survey of Beekeepers in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State. A Project Submitted to the Department of Agricultural Technology Oyo College of Agriculture Igboora.
2) Akilhu, A and Graaff, de  J.  (2007). Determinants of Adoption and Continued Use of Stone Terraces for Soil and Water Conservation in an Ethiopian Highland Watershed Ecological Economics, 61(2-3): 294 – 302.
3) Anyaegbulam, H. N., Ogbonna, M. C., Asumugha, G. N and Obi, V. I. (2008). Determinants of Beekeeping Technology in Abia State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria (ASN0 held at Ebonyi State University (EBSU). Abakiliki, 19th – 23rd Pp 867 - 870.
4) Atanda, E. O. (2010). Beekeeping for Sustainable Rural Livelihood in Ondo State, Nigeria. Retrieved on October 10, 2011 from http://beekeeping.pbworks.com/w/page/94361-80/olayinka. 
5) Community-Based Natural Resources Management Programme (CBNRMP). (2002). Programme Support Office Implementation Manual Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. 1: 2-5.
6)  Chah, J. M., Irohibe, I. J., Onwubuya, E. A. and Afiadigwe, T. N. (2013). Assessment of Beehive Installation and Management Practices among Rural People in Nsukka Agricultural Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. Proceedings of Annual National Conference of AESON 5th – 9th May Pp 62 – 69.
7)  Cross River State Planning Commission (CRSPC) (2006). Cross River State Economic Empowerment Development Strategy Report.  Cross River State Government Publication.  
8) Eluagu , L. S and Nwali, L. N. (1999). An Economic Appraisal of an Improved Methods of Beekeeping in Nigeria. A Case of the Apiculture Unit. Federal College of Agriculture Umudike. The Nigeria Agricultural Journal, 6(2): 90 – 105.   
9) Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) (2003). Sustainable Development Dimensions. Food and Agricultural Organization Rome, Italy.
10) Ganpat, W., and Seepersad, A. (1996). An Analysis of Linkages in a Rice-Based Knowledge System in Trinidad. Education (AIAEF) Held at Arlington, Virginia, Pp. 131 – 136.
11) Greene, W. H. (1993). Economic Analysis, Third Edition. Prentice-Hall International Inc, USA.
12)  Harris, R. P, Bridger, J. C., Sachs, C. E and Tallichet, S. E (1995). Empowering Rural Sociology; Exploring and Linking Alternative Paradigms in theory and Methodology. Rural Sociology, 60: 385 – 606.
13) Imoh, A. N. and Essien, M. U. (2005). Adoption of Improved Cassava Varieties among Small-Scale Farmers in Ikot-Ekpene Agricultural Zone, Akwa Ibom State. Nigeria. Proceedings 39th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria (AESON), held at the University of Benin. Benin City, October 9th-13th : 1-7.
14) International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) (2002). Nigeria Community-Based Natural Resource Management Programme – Niger Delta. Appraisal Report Pp. 1-3.
15) International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) (2001). Cassava Monograph. 6 (2): 53- 56.
16) Ja’afar-furo, M. R., Suleiman, A. and Hong, Y. E. (2006). A Comparative Analysis of Bee Keeping and Crop Production in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Apiaeta, 41(1: 44 – 53.  
17) Jamilu, A. A., Abdul – Aziz, H., Jafuru A. K, Sani, B. M. and Audu, S. C. (2014). Factors Influencing the Adoption of Sisakawa Global Maize Production Technologies among Smallholder Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension18(1): 73 – 83.      
18)  Korsi, L. G. A. (2001). Participation of Local Governments (LGAs) in Agricultural Technology Delivery. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Zonal Research- Extension-Farmer-Input – Linkage- System (REFILS) Workshop. South – East/ South-South Zones of Nigeria.
19) Marieke, M. (1991). Bees in their New National Environment in South-Western Nigeria. The Vigo Field Vol. 58 (3) Pp. 18.
20) Motuma, T., Aredo, D., Wonovossen, T., Roberto, La R., Wilfred, M. and Germano, M. (2002).The   Adoption of Agricultural Technologies: the Case of Hybrid Maize Seeds in Central-Western Ethiopia. Sasakawa Global 2000/Ethiopia Activity Report.  
     21) Muzari,. W. Gatsi, W. and Muvhunzi, S. (2012). The Impacts of Technology Adoption on Smallholder Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Journal of Sustainable Development 5(8): 69 – 77.
22)  Nwalieji, H. U., Madukwe, M. C., Agwu, A. E. and  Umerah, M. I. (2014). Adoption of Rice Technologies Introduced by the United States Agency for International Development in Anambra and Ebonyi States, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension, 8(1): 158 – 169.
23) Nwaobiala, C. U. (2013). Appraisal of Farmers’ Participation in IFAD/FGN/NDDC /Community Based Natural Resource Management Programme in Abia and Cross River States Nigeria. A Ph.D Thesis Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Abia State University Uturu.
24) Nwaobiala, C. U. (2014a). Adoption of Fish Production Technologies among Homestead Catfish Farmers in Ebonyi State, South-East, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Agricultural Research. 6(2): 75-84.
25)  Nwaobiala, C. U. (2014b). The Influence of Socio-Economic Factors on Adoption of Fish Production Technologies among Community-Based Farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education Systems (IJASRT in EESs) 4(3): 131 – 135. 
26)  Obialor, W.B. (2003). ‘Bee Rearing and Honey Production’.  Dominion Lithography Press Nsukka Nigeria.  
27)  Obinne, C. P.O. (1992). The Extension Service Plan for Effective Dissemination of information on Improved Innovation. Journal of Rural Development and Administration, 24(2): 20-24.
28) Okunlole, O. A. (2014). Beekeeping for Rural Development. Its Potential and Constraints in Iberapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A Project, Department of Agricultural Technology, Oyo College of Agriculture, Igboora.
29) Oladipo, M. O. (2011). The Prospect of Beekeeping in Ibarapa Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A paper Submitted to the Department of Agricultural Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture.
30)Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of Innovation. 4th Edition. The Free Press, New York, USA.
31)  Sanginga, P. C. (1998). Adoption and Social Impact Assessment of Agricultural Technologies. The Case of Soy Bean in Benue State, Nigeria. Ph.d Thesis. University of Ibadan. Ibadan, Nigeria.
32) Saror, S., Ogbanje, E. C., and Olu, Y. A. (2009). Discontinued Adoption of Agricultural Innovation among Small Scale Soya Bean Farmers in Gboko Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria (ASN) held at Abuja, 20th -23rd October, Pp.505-509.
33)  Shannori, D. Mwanbe, K. M., Kubengu, M. and Mpoy, M. C (1995): Adoption of Soy Bean. A Comparative Analysis of Cultural Practices in Zarie and Nigeria. Journal of Farming System and Extension 5(1): 39-45.
34)  Shuaib, H. A., Ahmed, B. Z.,  Abubakar, J.K. and Yelwa, F. J. (2011). Attitude of Farmers towards Agricultural Information Dissemination in Sokoto South LGA of Sokoto State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 45th Annual Conference of ASN held at Usman Danfodio University Sokoto, Pp. 80 – 85.
35)  Smith, J, Smith, J. B. and Dashiell, K. E (1992). Government Policy and Farm Level Technologies. The Expansion of Soy Bean in Nigeria. IITA Research 11: 14 – 18.
36) Tokula, M. H., Njoku, J. C., Ekwe, K. C., Egbo, G.,  Asumugha, G. N. and Nwanguma, F. (2013). Adoption of Improved Root and Tuber Crops Technologies in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Agricultural Economics and Extension Research Studies 2(2): 58 – 64.
37) Udeh, E.O, Nwajiuba, C.U. and Ekwegha, E.U. (2011). Adoption of Bee keeping Technologies by Farmers in Imo State. Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development (IJARD) 14(2): 595 – 600.
38)  Van den Ban and Hawkins, H. S. (1996). Agricultural Extension . 2nd Edition Blackwell Science Ltd London Pp. 96 – 119. 
39) Yusuf, H.O. (2009). Factors Influencing Adoption of Improved Groundnut Oil Processing Technologies by Rural Women in Kaduna State, Nigeria. M.SC Thesis Submitted to Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology Faculty of Agriculture Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria