This study examined the status and determinants of rural households’ food security in Moyale district of pastoral area, Oromia regional state, in Ethiopia. Both secondary and primary data were used for the study. The study was based on the survey of a total of 100 farmers randomly selected using a three-stage sampling technique. Analytical tools used include descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) model and logit model. The findings revealed that about 49.5% and 50.5% of pastoral households were food insecure and food secure respectively. Logit model analysis result showed total farm income, off-farm income and livestock holding households were the major factors positively and significantly influence food security status. However, family size negatively affects household food security in the study area. The findings suggest the following set of policy recommendation. Identifying and understanding factors that are responsible for household food security status and its determinants is important to combat food security problems at the household level. The study findings suggest that in selecting priority intervention areas, the food security strategy should consider statistically significant variables as the most important areas. [Amsalu Mitiku et al. Analysis of Factors Determining Households Food Security in Pastoral Area Oromia Region, Moyale District, In Ethiopia. International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology, 2012; 2(3):105-110].