1 Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Soil Science, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran


Appropriate management of soil phosphorus (P) fertility in highly calcareous soils of Iran as around the world should rely upon sound knowledge about the phosphorus reserve and its bioavailability. Despite numerous reports on the positive effects of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi on phosphorus uptake which is associated to Ectomycorrhiza as a branch of two major branches of group of fungis from mycorrhizal association, surprisingly little data exist on impact of VAM fungi on distribution of soil phosphorus forms in soils. A greenhouse-based study was conducted to investigate the potential effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi application on phosphorus inorganic forms of soil rhizosphere in sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.). Results indicated that there is a significant increase in Fe-P fractions (P<0.001) in the rhizospher of the treated sunflowers with AM inoculums compared with untreated sunflowers. It could be potentially attributed to increases in secretion of specific–iron chelates such as hydroxamate siderophore from sunflower roots in +AM sunflowers treatments. [Morovvat et al. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza fungi application on distribution of phosphorus forms in rhizosphere soils of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology, 2012; 2(2):77-82].


1. Bakari, S. S., Vuai, S. A. and Tokuyama, A. (2004). Forest soil fertility in Okinawa Island, subtropical region in Japan. Bull. Fac. Sci., Univ. Ryukyus. 78: 267-284.

2. Barančíková1, G., Liptaj, T and Prónayová, N. (2007). Phosphorus Fractions in Arable and Mountain Soils and their Humic Acids. Soil & Water Research., 4: 141-148.

3. Gianinazzi-Pearson, V., Mendoza., M., Meyer, M.L., Weidmann, S and Harrison M. J. (2006). Arbuscular Mycorrhiza. Medicago Trunk Atula Handbook. 4. Hopkins, W.G. and Hüner, N.P.A. (2009). Introduction to plant Physiology. 4th Edition. 528 pages.

5. Jiang, B. and Gu, Y. (1986). A suggested fractionation scheme for inorganic phosphorus in calcareous soils. Fertil. Res. 20: 159-165.

6. Johri, J.K., Surange, K., Nautiyal, C.S. (1999). Occurrence of salt, pH, and temperature-tolerant, phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in alkaline soils. Current Microbiology. 39:89-93.

7. Li, H., Smith, S.E. Holloway, R.E., Zhu, Y. and Smith, F.A. (2006). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contribute to phosphorus uptake by wheat grown in phosphorus-fixing soil even in absence of positive growth responses. New Phytol. 172(3):536-543.

8. Ouahmane, L. Thioulouse, J Hafidi, M Prin, Y Ducousso, M . (2007). Soil functional diversity and P solubilization from rock phosphate after inoculation with native or allochtonous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Forest Ecology and Management, 241: (1-3) 200-208.

9. Renneson, M., Dufey, J. Bock, L. and Colinet, G. (2010). Effect of parent material and land use on soil phosphorus forms in southern Belgium. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World 1 – 6 August 2010, Brisbane, Australia. Published on DVD.

10. Sakurai, K., Tanaka, N., Iwasaki, K. and Tanaka, S. (2001). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal application on the distribution of phosohorus and iron in the rhizosphere soils of sunflower (helianthus annuus L.). W. J. Horst et al., Plant nutrition – Food security and sustainability of agro-ecosystems. 620-621.

11. Shaw, G., Leak, J.R., Baker, A.J.M. and Read, D.J. (1990). The biology of mycorrhiza in the Ericaceae. XVII. The role of mycorrhizal infection in the regulation of iron uptake by ericaceous plsnts. New Phytol. 115: 251-258.

12. Schachtman, D.P., Reid, R.J., Ayling, S.M. 1998. Phosphorus Uptake by Plants: From Soil to Cell. Plant Physiology, 116 ( 2) 447-453.

13. Smith SE, Read DJ. (1997). Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc.

14. Stevenson, F.J. and Cole, M.A. (1999). Cycles of Soil: Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, micronutrients. 2nd ed. John Wilson & Sons, Inc. New York, pp. 46-329.

15. Stewart J.W.B. and Tiessen H. (1987). Dynamics of soil organic phosphorus. Biogeochemistry, 4: 41–60.

16. Syers, J. K., A. E. Johnston and D. Curtin. (2008). Efficiency of soil and fertilizer phosphorus use. Reconciling changing concepts of soil phosphorus behaviour with agronomic information. FAO Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin.

17. Tawaraya, K. Naito, M. Wagatsuma, T. (2006). Solubilization of Insoluble Inorganic Phosphate by Hyphal Exudates of Arbuscular

Mycorrhizal Fungi. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 29: (4): 657-665.