Adisa, R. S. and Adekunle, O. A. (2010). Farmer-Herdsmen Conflicts: A Factor Analysis of Socio-economic Conflict Variables among Arable Crop Farmers in North Central Nigeria. J Hum. Ecol, 30(1): 7-9.
Ban, K. (2007). A Climate Culprit in Darfur. Washington Post, 16 June.
Barlowe, B. (1978). Land Resource Economics: The Economic of Real Estate. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, P.55.
Chikaire, J., Atala, T. K., Akpoko, J. G. and Nnadi F. N. (2011). Factors Influencing Agricultural Land-Use Conflicts in Ohaji Area of Imo State, Nigeria. www.sciencepub.net/report
Cotula L, T. C and Hesse, C. (2004). Land Tenure and Administration in Africa: Lesson of Experience and Emerging Issues, IIED. Retrieved on Oct. 10 2005 from http://www.iies.org/drylands/pubs/ documents/ LT-cotula.pdf.
Ehrlich, I. (1973). Participation in illegitimate activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investment. Journal of Political Economy, 81(3): 521-522.
Falola, T. (1998). Violence in Nigeria: The Crisis of Religious Politics and Seccilar Ideologies. New York, University of Rochester Press. 21p
Famoriyo, S. (1983). Impact of Land Tenure on Agricultural Production in Nigeria. Paper presented at the Second World Congress on Land Policy, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 1.
Famoriyo, S. (1984). Data Needs in Agricultural Land Use in Nigeria. Paper presented at the ARMTI Seminar on Record Keeping and Agro-Statistics Data Bank in Nigeria. Ilorin 23rd – 25th April.
Famoriyo, S. (1987). Acquisition of Land and Compensation in Nigeria. In: Mortimore (ed.) Perspective on Land Administration in Northern Nigeria. Bayero University, Kano.
FEWS-NET (2005). Resource Based Conflict and Food Security. Available at http://www.fews.net/. Accessed on 13/9/2006.
Fiki, C. and Lee, B. (2004). Conflict Generation, Conflict Management and Self-organizing Capabilities in Drought-prone Rural Communities in North-eastern Nigeria: A case study. Journal of Social Development in Africa, 19(2): 35-37.
Freeman, R. (1996). Why so many young American Men Commit Crimes do and what might we do about it. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10(1): 25 -27.
Gefu, J. O. (2003). Land Tenure Systems in Nigeria. Land net, Nigeria, pp.9-11.
Henk-Jan, B., Cullen S. Hendrix, S. (2011). Food insecurity and Violent Conflict: consequences and Addressing the Challenges. World Food Programme. Occasional Paper Number 24. 8p
Herbst, J.T. (2002). States and Power in Africa; Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control, Princeton University Press
Homer-Dixon, T. (1999). Environment, Scarcity, and Violence. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
Ikpeme, N. J. (2013). Small arms proliferation and its impact on communal conflict in Cross River State of Nigeria.Journal of Sociology. 21 (3):18.
Kahl, C. (2006). States, Scarcity, and Civil Strife in the Developing World. Princeton, Princeton
Krueger, A. B. and Maleckova, J. (2003). Education, Poverty and Terrorism: Is there a causal connection? Journal of Economics Perspectives. 17(4).
Kughur, P. G. and Umar, B. F. (2014). Communal Conflicts and Rural Livelihood in Benue State, Nigeria. International Journal of Development Studies, (9)8: 37-38.
Lee, B. (1999). Pragmatics of Community Organizing Mississauga, 3rd Edition, Canada: Common Act Press.
Lowe, R. G. (1986). Agricultural Revolution in Africa, Macmillan Publishers, London, pp.50
Messer, E., Cohen, M and Marchione, T. (2001). Conflict: A cause and effect of hunger. Agricultural and rural development, 8 (2): 67p.
Momale, S. B. (2003). Resources Use Conflicts in Agricultural and Pastoral Areas in Nigeria. In: Gefu, J.O. (ed), Land Tenure Systems in Nigeria. Land Net, Nigeria, pp. 45 - 49.
NPC. (2006). National Population Commission, available on www. Population.gov.ng/ Retrieved 05-07-2011. Number 3-4 summer/Autumn
Onwudiwe, E. (2004). Communal Violence and the Future of Nigeria. Global Dialogue Vol.6
Philips, A. O. and Titilola, T. (1995). Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Practices: Case Studies from Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: NISER, 15p
Piehl, A. M. (1998). Economic Conditions, work and crime in Michael (ed). Handbook on Crime and Punishment, Oxford. Oxford University Press.
Robinson, J. (2002). States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Journal of Economic Literature, 40: 510-19.
Spelten, A. (1995). The impact of ethnic conflict on food supply situation in Africa, Agriculture and Rural Development, 2(2): 68p.