Document Type: Regular articles
Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University Kirtipur, Nepal
Professor of Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University Kirtipur, Nepal.,
City College, CUNY, New York, NY, USA
Institute of Global Agriculture and Technology Transfer (IGATT), Fort Collins, CO, USA
Ecotourism is growing business in Nepal due to domestic and international visitors. Specifically, natural lakes in Ramsar sites are very potential avenues for boating, scenic beauty and study the aquatic ecosystem. However Eichhornia crassipes has been threatening the beauty, ecosystem and eco-tourism business. This research was objectively carried out to explore income generation from ecotourism and determine socio-economic management of Eichhornia crassipes for manure or biobriquette. Four Ramsar sites namely Beeshazari, Maipokhari, Lakes Clusters of Pokhara and Jagdishpur Lakes were selected for the study. Data were collected through expert consultation organizing four workshops, direct observation and sampling. Meanwhile record of manpower, removal cost and utilization of Eichhornia crassipes were also collected. Affected sites of Eichhornia crassipes were calculated analyzing the current image of Google earth pro using ArcGIS. Samples were collected establishing sixty plots of 1m×1m and these were analyzed. Altogether about US$ 785260 was earned from tourism business between 2011 to 2015. The highest income was generated about US$ 397500 between 2011 to 2015 from visitors of Lakes of Pokhara. Removal cost of Eichhornia crassipes was the highest about US$ 108.09 ha-1 of Beeshazari Lakes in 2015. Farmers could save cost about US$ 31931 using Eichhornia crassipes as manure and that could be nearly US$ 38315 for biobriquette in 2015. The B/C ratio, NPV and Profit Index could be nearly 6.13, 96059.91 and 7175.11 using Eichhornia crassipes of Beeshazari Lakes as manure while 4.81, 105868.50 and 12415.63 using it as biobriquette. The study could contribute design the ecotourism policy.
- Albright, T. P., Moorhouse, T. G. and Mcnabb T. J. (2004). The Rise and Fall of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria and the Kagera River Basin, 1989-2001. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 42: 73-84.
- Banskota, K. (2012). Impact of Tourism on Local Employment and Incomes in Three Selected Destinations: Case Studies of Sauraha, Nagarkot and Bhaktapur. Nepal Tourism and Development Review 2, 2012.
- Cbukwuka, K. S. and Omotayo, O. E. (2009). Soil Fertility Potential of Tithonia Green Manure and Water Hyacinth Compost on Nutrient Depleted Soil in South Western Nigeria Using Zea mays L. as Test Crop, Research Journal of Soil Biology,1(1):20-30.
- EEA. (2012). The Impacts of Invasive Alien Species in Europe. European Economic Area Technical Report No 16/2012. Luxembourg Publications.
- Frank, O. O. and Akhihiero, T. E. (2013). Fuel Briquettes from Water Hyacinth-Cow Dung Mixture as Alternative Energy for Domestic and Agro-Industrial Applications. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy, 3(6): 56-62.
- IUCN. (2015). IUCN-Ramsar Collaboration. Supporting the Wise Use of Wetlands. Gland. Switzerland: IUCN
- JNCC. (2015). Designated and Proposed Ramsar sites in the UK and Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies, Joint Nature Conservation Committee URL:http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-1389 Retrieved date: 3.31.2017.
- KC, S., Khanal, S., Kumar, A., Shrestha, P., Lamsal, B. (2011). Current status of renewable energy in Nepal: Opportunities and challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15 (1): 4107–4117.
- Kunwar, R. R. (1997) Tourism and Development. Kathmandu: Science and Industry Interface.
- Levin, S. A., Grenfell, B., Hastings, A., and Perelson. A.S.1997). Mathematical and computational Challenges in Population Biology and Ecosystem Science, Science, 275: 334-343.
- Mack, E. A. and Wrase, S. (2017). Correction: A Burgeoning Crisis? A Nationwide Assessment of the Geography of Water Affordability in the United States. PLOS ONE 12(4): e0176645. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176645
- Mironga, M. J. (2014). Lessons for Effective Management of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in Kenya International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(9): 118-126.
- MoFSC. (2014). Nepal National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Singh Durbar Kathmandu Nepal.
- Na, S. S. (2015). Ayuttaya Financial Evaluation to Select the Best Water Hyacinth Harvester to Improve Water Resources in Thailand. Kasetsart Journal of Natural Science, 49(1): 1022– 1035.
- Njogu, P., Kinyua, R., Muthoni, P., Nemoto, Y., (2015). Biogas Production Using Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes) for Electricity Generation in Kenya. Energy and Power Engineering. 7(1):209-216.
- Nyananyo, B. L.; Gijo, A. H. and Ogamba, E.N. (2007). The Physico-chemistry and Distribution of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia cressipes) on the river Nun in the Niger Nelta. Journal of Applied Science Envrionment Management, 11(3): 133–137.
- Rezania, S., Mohanadoss, P. M., Mohmad, D. F. , Rahman, S. A., Mohmad, S. F., Shreeshivadasan C. (2015). The diverse applications of water hyacinth with main focus on sustainable energy and production for new era: An overview Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 41 (1): 943–954
- RSIS (2016). List of Wetlands of International Importance. The Secretariat of the Convention on Wetlands, Rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland, Ramsar Sites Information Service.
- Sanni, K. O. and Adesina, J. M. (2012) Response of water hyacinth manure on growth attributes and yield of Celosia argentea L (Lagos Spinach). Journal of Agricultural Technology, 8(3): 1109-1118.
- Simpson, D. and Sanderson, H. (2002). Eichhornia crassipes. Royan Botanic Gardens. Blackwell Publishing Limited.108. Gowly Road, Oxford United Kingdom. 28-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8748.00326, retrieved date: May 18, 2016.
- Tobin, P. C., Berec, L. K. and Andrew, M. Liebhold. (2011). Exploiting Allee effects for managing biological invasions. Ecology Letters, 14: 615–624.
- Veitch, V., Damien, B., Dave, H. and Barry, B. (2007). Removal of Aquatic Weeds from Lagoon Creek, Herbert Catchment North Queensland: Trialling Novel Removal Methods and Demonstration of Environmental Benefits Great Barrier Reef Coastal Wetlands Protection Program Department of Environment and Water Canberra.
- Vidya, S. and Girish, L. (2014). Water Hyacinth as a Green Manure for Organic Farming. International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences, 2(6): 65-72.
- WWF. (2013). Bolivia designates world’s largest protected wetland, Wrold Wildlife Fund, Bolivia. URL:http://wwf.panda.org/?207471/Bolivia- designates-worlds-largest-protected-wetland Retrieved date: March 31, 2017.