Document Type: Regular articles

Authors

1 MSc of Agricultural Management, Agricultural Department, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshar, Iran

2 Asisstant Professor of Agricultural Department, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshar, Iran

Abstract

The present study was conducted to compare precision and traditional agriculture by budgeting technique. Its statistical population consists of 210 experts in agricultural jihad organization of Qom province. The validity of Questionnaire as research tool ware confirmed by professors while its reliability was corroborated by Cranach’s alpha to 0.78-0.94 intervals. According to the findings, there was the significant difference between economic, social, managerial, and training aspects for both precision and traditional agriculture on average. Also, there was the significant relationship between all economic, social, environmental, managerial and training aspects, limitation and policies on expert’ s understanding on each concept of precision agriculture. The findings show that there was no significant relationship between all aspects, limitation, and policies on precision agriculture and expert’s understanding of each concept of precision agriculture. The findings were indicated that there was no significant link between correlation coefficient of environmental aspect and limitation to understanding the concept of precision agriculture. Results of regression analysis show that economic, social, managerial, training, policies of precision agriculture overall can be explained 44% of changes in independent variables. Also, results of budgeting sector show that there was the significant difference between cost and income of precision and traditional agriculture so that cost of the traditional production was much higher than precision agriculture.

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. CBD. (2008). Ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Bonn, Germany 19-30 May. http://www.cbd.int/decisions/cop/?m=cop-09
  2. CBD. (1992). Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations. Retrieved on 10 / Sept. 2015. at https://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-en.pdf
  3. Edoka, M. H. (2006). The technological capabilities of maize farmers in Olamaboro Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. An M.Sc. Research work, Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 123p.
  4. EEA. (2009). Progress towards the European 2010 biodiversity target. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.
  5. Fitt, G. and Wilson, L. (2003). Non-Target Effects of Bt Cotton: A Case Study from Australia, Canberra CSIRO Entomology, Biotechnology of Bacillus thuringiensis and Its environmental impact (eds) R. Akhurst, C. Beard and P.A.E. Hughes).
  6. Hayati, A. A and Proctor, M. C. F. (1991). Limiting nutrients in acid vegetation: and plant analyses and experiments on plant responses to added nutrients. J. Ecol, 79:       75-95 
  7. IUCN. (2000).The Red List of GT hreatened. Retrievedon11 /Sept .2015 at http://www.redlist.org /info/introduction.html
  8. Kughur, P. G. (2012). The Effects of Herbicides on Crop Production and Environment in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria, Journal of sustainable Development in Africa. (14) 4: 207-208.
  9. NPC. (2006). National Population Commission, Abuja, Nigeria (2006) National Population and Housing Census.

10. Oerke, E. C. and Dehne, H. W. (1997). Global crop production and the efficacy of crop protection-Current situation and future trends. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103: 203-215.

11. Pimentel, D., McLaughlin, L., Zepp, A., Lakitan, B., Kraus, T., Kleinman, P., Vancini, F., Roach, W.J., Graap, E., Keeton, W.S., and Selig, G. (1993). Environmental and economic-effects of reducing pesticide use in agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment: 46: 1-4. 

12. Poláková, S., Tucker, G., Hart, K., Dwyer, J. and Rayment, M. (2011). Addressing biodiversity and habitat preservation through measures applied under the common agricultural policy, Institute for European Environmental Policy. Pp 1-10, September

13. SBSTTA. (2003). Subsidiary Body on Scientific Technical and Technological Advice: introduction, convention of the biological diversity, retrieved 10/ Sept, 2015. http:www.biodiv.org/ convention/sbstta.asp. 102p  

14. Smith, P., Martino, D. and Cai, Z. (2008). Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. Philosophical  Transactions of the Royal Society B, 791p.

15. Tilman, D. (1999). Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: The need for sustainable and efficient practices. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96: 5995-6000

16. Tilman, D., Cassman, K. G., Matson, P. A., Naylor, R., and Polasky, S. (2002). Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature,http://www.nature.com/cgitaf?file=/nature/journal/v418/n6898/retrieved on 10 Sept. 2015available at full/nature01014418:671-677

17. UNDP. (2001). United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2001: Making new technologies work for human development Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, retrieved on 12th September, 2015at http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2001/en/Pp. 45.

18. Winqvist, C., Bengtsson, J., Aavik, T., Berendse, F., Clement, L. W., Eggers, S., Fischer, C., Flohre, A., Geiger, F., Liira, J., Pärt, T., Thies, C., Tscharntke, T., Weisser, W. W and Bommarco, R. (2011). Mixed effects of organic farming and landscape complexity on farmland biodiversity and biological control potential across Europe. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48 (3):570-579.

19. Winspear, R., Grice, P., Peach, W., Phillips, J., Aebischer, N., Thomas, P., Egan, J. and Nowakowski, M. (2010). The development of farmland bird packages for arable farmers in England. Aspects of Applied Biology, No 100, Pp. 347-352.

20. Woo, I. and Zedler, J. B. (2002). Can Nutrients Alone Shift A Sedge Meadow Towards Dominance by The Invasive Typha 3 Glauca? Wetlands, 22: 509-521

21. Wood, S., Sebastian, K., and Scherr, S. J. (2000). Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: agro-ecosystems. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute and International Food Policy Research Institute. pp.45-50.