To meet the growing food demand of Bangladesh requires efficiently use of inputs and effectively manage of production practices at the farm level. Thus, the present study aims to measure the technical efficiency and establish core factors affecting boro and aman rice production in Bangladesh. The study employed mainly farm level data collected from 80 farm households selected randomly in Dinajpur district. Translog Stochastic Frontier Production function approach used to estimate farm specific technical efficiency of the farmers. Evidence revealed that, overall production efficiency of boro and aman rice production were 83.25, and 85.15 percent, respectively which implies that there is still room to further improve technical efficiency given the same level of inputs and technology. Furthermore, the level of output of boro and aman rice production varied according to area cultivated, employed human labor, irrigation management, fertilizer and manure application. On the other hand, farmer’s education, access to microcredit, training and extension facilities were the important factors influencing the level of inefficiency according to technical inefficiency effect model. In conclusion, the sustainability of the high efficiency will dependent on the continuous support of supply and proper use of inputs in the study areas.