Document Type: Regular articles

Authors

School of Environment Science and Management, Kathmandu Nepal

Abstract

This study was objectively done to assess the practice of organic farming and employment opportunities, compare the income generated from organic and inorganic products and identify the problems faced by farmers from organic farming system. Semi structure questionnaire survey, questionnaire, key informant interview and market survey were done to collect primary data and these were analyzed. The result showed that, total 137 and 99 employments were created by organic and inorganic farming. The organic farmers use the compost but the inorganic farmers used the chemical fertilizers. Liquid extracted from garlic and Azadirachta indica was used as pesticides in organic farming. The highest price difference was. US$ 0.18 for cucumber i.e, while the price difference for organic cauliflower was US$ 0.09. Similarly, the price difference of broccoli was only US$ 0.04. But the organic and inorganic price of cabbage, spinach, garlic, coriander and radish were recorded US$ 0.43, US$ 0.09, US$ 1.30, US$ 0.09 and US$ 0.43 respectively. Rich organic farmers were earning US$ 8677.54 annually this was US$ 2603.26 by rich inorganic farmers. Similarly, medium organic farmers and inorganic farmers were earning US$ 3123.92 and US$ 1561.96 respectively while poor organic and inorganic farmers are earning US$ 650.82 and US$ 433.88 respectively. Unavailable of good seeds, lack of organic fertilizer, slow production in initial year, lack of government support, irrigation, price difference, haphazard use of fertilizers and pesticides were recorded as the major problems in organic and inorganic farming. This study will be useful to develop the policy.

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. Adhikari, R. K. (2009). Economics of Organic Vs Inorganic Carrot Production in Nepal. The Journal of Agriculture and Environmnet, 10, 23-28.
  2. Aryal, K. P., Chaudhary, P., Pandit, S., & Sharma, G. (2015). Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Organic Products: A Case From Kathmandu Valley. Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 10, 15–26.
  3. Bahrami Nokandeh, L., Mahmoodi Karamjavan, J. (2018). Factors Affecting Tendency towards Organic Production (Case Study: Greenhouse Producers of Tabriz Township, Iran). International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education Systems, 8(3), 129-137.
  4. Barrett, H. R., Browne, A. W., Harris, P. J. C., & Cadoret, K. (2002). Organic Certification and the UK market: organic imports from development countries. Food Policy, 27(4), 301–318.
  5. Bellwood, P. S. (2005). The first farmers: the origins of agricultural societies. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.
  6. Bhat, B. R. (2015). Opportunity and Challenge of Organic Certification System in Nepal. Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 10, 144–149.
  7. Bhatta, G. D., & Doppler, W. (2010). Socio-economic and environmental aspects of farming practices in the peri-urban hinterlands of Nepal. Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 11 (1):  26–39.
  8. Bhatta, G. D., Doppler, W., & KC, K. B. (2008). Problems and potentials of organic agriculture development in Nepal. International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Mangaement and Rural Development, 7–9.
  9. Bhatta, G. D., Doppler, W., & KC, K. B. (2015). Potentials of Organic Agriculture in Nepal. Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 10, 1–14.

10. Commoner, B. (2020). The closing circle: nature, man, and technology. Dover Publications.

11. FAO. (2001). World markets for organic fruit and vegetables - Opportunities for developing countries in production and export of organic horticultural products. Rome.

12. Finley, L., Chappell, M. J., Thiers, P., & Moore, J. R. (2018). Does organic farming present greater opportunities for employment and community development than conventional farming? A survey-based investigation in California and Washington. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 42(5), 552–572.

13. Ghimire, A. (2002). A review on organic farming for sustainable agriculture. Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology. Chitwan: Forestry Nepal.

14. Hsieh, S. (2005). Organic Farming for Suatainable Agriculture in Asia eith Special Reference to Taiwan Experience. National Pingtang University of Science and Technology, Pingtang,Taiwan.

15. Lyons, K. (2009). Corporate Environmentalism and Organic Agriculture in Australia: The case of Uncle Tobys. Rural Sociology, 64(2), 251–265.

16. Ming, S. (2006). Review of History and Recent Development of Organic Farming Worldwide. Agricultural Sciences in China, 5(3), 169–178.

17. Misra, S., Huang, C., & Ott, S. (1991). Consumer willingness to pay for pesticide-free fresh produce. Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, 16, 218–227.

18. Noorivandi, A. (2012). Analyzing Perception and Technical Knowledge of Wheat Farmers Regarding Organic Farming Products. International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education Systems, 2(4), 180-186.

19. Olajire, A. A. (2020). The brewing industry and environmental challenges. Journal of Cleaner Production, 256, 102817.

20. Pandey, J., & Singh, A. (2012). Opportunities and constraints in organic farming: an Indian perspective. Journal of Scientific Research, 56, 47-72.

21. Pratap, T. (2011). Hill Agriculture: Challenges and Opportunities. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66(1), 33–52.

22. Ramesh, P., Panwar, N. R., Singh, A. B., Ramana, S., Yadav, S. K., Shrivastava, R., & Subba Roa, A. (2010). Status of Organic Farming in India. Current Science, 98(9): 1-11.

23. Rasouliazar, S., Sadeghi, M., Shayesteh, N. (2015). Factor Analyses the Management Skills in Development of Organic Agriculture in West Azerbaijan Province Farms.International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education Systems, 5(2), 135-144.

24. Sanders, R. (2006). A Market Road to Sustainable Agriculture? Ecological Agriculture, Green Food and Organic Agriculture in China. Development and Change, 37(1), 201–226.

25. Shrestha, M. (2015). Assement of the Organic Farming Practices in Bhaktapur. Pokhara University.

26. Shrestha, R. K. (2013). Fertilizer Policy Development in Nepal. Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 11, 126–137. https://doi.org/10.3126/aej.v11i0.3660

27. Shukla, U. N., Mishra, M., & Bhairwa, K. C. (2013). Organic farming: current status in India. Popular Kheti, 14(1), 19–25.

28. Thakur, D. S., & Sharma, K. D. (2005). Organic farming for Sustainable Agriculture and Meeting the Challenges of Food Security in 21st Century: An Economic Analysis. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 60(2).

29. Voon, J. ., Ngui, K. ., & Agrawal, A. (2011). Determinants of Willingness to Purchase Organic Food: An Exploratory Study Using Structural Equation Modeling. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 14(2), 103–120.

30. Weaver, R. ., D.J, E., & Luloff, A. (1992). Pesticide use in tomato production consumer concerns and willingness to pay. Agribusiness, 8, 131–142.

31. Willer, H., & Lernoud, J. (2018). The World of Organic Agriculture Supported by Global Policy Toolkit on Public Support to Organic Agriculture.