Document Type: Regular articles


Department of Agriculture, Pars Abad Moghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pars Abad Moghan, Iran.


Organic agriculture (OA) includes a comprehensive production management system that is considered as one of the strategies to reduce negative impacts of industrial agriculture in many countries. This research was identifying factors affecting the development of OA in Ardabil province. A descriptive– correlation survey approach was used in this study. Participants were agricultural specialists of Jihad Keshavarzai organization in the province of Ardabil- Iran (N=313). Research samples was selected using randomly stratified method with using Cochran formula (n= 126). Questionnaire reliability was determined by pilot test out of the main sample (Cornbach’s alpha). Validity of instrument was determined by investigating the attitudes of agricultural specialists in universities of Tehran and Ardabil. The results showed that Specialists’ attitude toward organic agriculture was positive. The results of factor analysis led to the identification of four factors (governmental and policy, infrastructure, extension and education, and economic), accounted for cumulative variance of 62.74 percent.


Main Subjects

  1. Abidoo, S., & Dickinson, H. (2002). Alternative and conventional agricultural paradigms: Evidence from farming in southwest Saskatchewan. Rural Sociology, 67(1), 114-131.
  2. Anderson, C., Fleming, K., Kians. R.S., Oxenhandler, S., Pruente, K., & M,Young. (2003). Attitudes toward Agriculture and Food Safety among Missourians. Missouri Department of Agriculture, University of Missouri, Columbia.
  3. Asadollahpour, A. (2013). Organic farming: status Challenges and Barriers - An Iranian Perspective. Journal of Agri-Food and Applied Sciences, 1(4), 110-118.
  4. Avery, D. (1995). Saving the planet with Pesticides and Plastic. The Environmental Triumph of High-Yield Farming, Hudson Institute, Indian police, Indiana.
  5. Beus,C. and Dunlap, R.E. (1990). Conventional versus Alternative Agriculture: The Paradigmatic Roots of the Debate, Rural Sociology, 55(4), 590-616.
  6. Cock, L. (2005). Determinates of Organic Farming Conversion. International Congress of the EAAE (European Association of Agricultural Economics). The future of Rural Europe in the Global Agro-food System, 24-27 August, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  7. Dahlberg, K. A. (ed). (1986). New Directions for Agriculture and Agricultural research: Neglected Dimensions and Emerging Alternatives. Rowman & Allanheld Publishers.New Jersey.
  8. Damghani, A.M. 2016. Analysis of organic productions in Iran. In Iran news agency Retrieved from:
  9. Dimara E., Petrou, A., & Skuras, D. (2003). The socio-economics of niche market certain: A social ecology paradigm for the adoption of organic cultivation in Greece. International Journal of Social Economics, 30 (3), 219-235.

10. Fabrigar, R. L., Pretty, E.R., Smith, M.S. & L.S. Crites. (2006). Understanding Knowledge Effects on Attitude- Behavior Consistency: The role of Relevance, Comlexity, and Amount of Knowledge, J.Person.Socio. Psyco, 90(4), 556-577.

11. FAO. (2013). FAO Statistical Yearbook, World Food and Agriculture,Rome. Food and agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

12. Fatemi, M., Rezaei – Moghaddam, K. (2020). Sociological factors influencing the performance of organic activities in Iran, Life Sciences, Society and Policy, 16(3).

13. Feder, G., & Slade, R. (1984). The acquisition of information and the adoption of new technology, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66 (3), 312-320.

14. FIBL- IFOAM (2018). The World of Organic Agriculture. Statistics and Emerging. Trends 2018.Willer, H. W. & Lernoud J. (Eds). FiBL-IFOAM Report.

15. Field, A.P. 2005. Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (2nd Edition). London: Sage.

16. Fuglie, K., & Kascak, C. (2001). Adoption and diffusion of natural-resources-conserving agricultural technology. Review of Agricultural Economics, 23 (2), 386-403.

17. Gnanadhas, M.E. and Jesurajan, S. A. (2011). A study on the factors motivating women to become entrepreneurs in Trunelveli district. Asian Journal of Business and Economics, 1 (6), 1-14

18. Gotschi, E., Vogel, S., & T, Lindenthal. (2007). High scool students Attitudes and Behavior Twards Organic Products: Survey Results from Vienna. University of Natural Resources and Applied Life S.ciences, Vienna.

19. Gracia, A., & Magistris, T. (2013). Organic food purchase behavior. A pilot study for urban consumers in the South of Italy. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 5 (4), 439-451.

20. Hussein, S. J. and Ajoudani, Z. Affective Factors in Adopting Organic Farming in Iran. Scholars Research

21. Klockner, C.A. (2013). A Compehensive model of the psychology of environment behavior- A meta- analysis. Global Environmental Change, 23(5), 1028-1038.

22. Kouhestani, K., Abdolahi, V., & Z, Khoshnudifar (2015). Analysis of effective Factors on organic farming from viewpoint of agricultural experts in Systan and bluchestan province. Agricultural extension and education researches. 7(3), 29-42.

23. Kromm, D., & White, S. (1991) Reliance on sources of information for water-saving practices by irrigators in the high plains of the USA. Journal of Rural Studies, 7(4),411-421.

24. Lavic, R. (2002). Pro-environmental attitudes-do they matter? ESA -Workshop- Sociology of Consumption, Bergen Norway, 28-31 August.

25. Library, Annals of Biological Research, 3(1), 601-608.

26. Macilwain, C., Gewin, V. (2004). Organic: is it the future of farming? Nature, 428, 792–793

27. Mäder P., Fliebach, A., Dubois, D., Gunst, L., Fried, P., & Niggli, U. (2002). Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science, 296 (5573), 1694-1697.

28. Maleksaeedi, H., Ajili, A., & Rezaimoghadam, K. (2009). Effective Factors on agricultural specialists knowledge about development of Organic Agriculture in Khoozestan Province. Magazine of economical researches agricultural development, 40(2). 81-91

29. Malek-Saeidi, H., K. Rezaei-Moghaddam, and A. Ajili. 2012. Professionals' attitude towards organic farming: The case of Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 14: 37–50.

30. Marsh S., Pannell, D., & Lindner, R. (2000). The impact of agricultural extension on adoption and diffusion of lupines as a new crop in WA, Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture,40, 571-583

31. Moradi, P., Omidi Najafabadi, M and Razaghi, F. (2013). FFS on Integrated Pest Management (IPM / FFS) Step towards Sustainable Development of Agriculture, the First National Conference on Strategies to Achieve Sustainable Development. Tehran: Interior Ministry.

32. Masoud, M. 2017. Organic agriculture in the world and Iran. In IRIB news agency Retrieved from: 760029.

33. O’Richard T., & Cobb, D. (2001) Assessing the Consequences of Converting to Organic Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 52 (1), 22-35

34. Padel, S., Vaarst, M. & K. Zaralis, K. (2015). Supporting Innoviation in Organic Agriculture: A European Perspective Using Experience from the SOLID Project, Suatainable Agriculture Research, 4(3), 32-41.

35. Pretty, J., Toulmin, C., & Williams, S. (2011). Sustainable intensification in African agriculture. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 9(1), 5-24.öös, E., Bajželj, B., Smith, P. Patel,M., Little, D., & Garnett, T. (2017). Greedy or needy? Land use and climate impacts of food in 2050 under different livestock futures. Glob. Environ. Chang. 47, 1–12.

36. Rajabi, A., Shaban-Ali Fami, H., and Pour Atashi, M. (2013). The Investigation of The Components of the Acceptance of Organic Products from Consumers’ Point of View (A Case Study in Karaj). Quarterly Journal of Food Science And Industry, 10(38):33-43.

37. Rasouliazar, S., Sadeghi, M., & Shayesteh, N(2015). Factor analysis the management skills in Development of Organic Agriculture in West Azerbaijan Province farmers, Iran. International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education System. 5(2). 35-144.

38. Röös, E., Bajezelj, B., Smith, P., Patel, M., Little, D., & T, Gantt. (2017). Greddy or needy? Land use and climate impacts of food in 2050 under different livestock futures, Glubal

39. Sadati, S. A., Shabanalifami, H., Asadi,A., and A. Sadati. (2010). Investigating Effective Factors on Attitude of Paddy Growers Towards Organic Farming:A Case Study in Babol County in Iran, Research Journal Technology, 3(4), 362-367

40. Stobbelaarr, D. J., G. Casimir, J. Borghuis, I. Marks, L. Meijer., & Zebeda, S. (2006). Adolescents’ attitudes towards organic food: a survey of 15- to 16-year old school children. International Journal of Consumer Studies. 31(4), 349-356.

41. Stolze M., Piorr A., Haring, A., & Dabbert, S. (2000) The environmental impacts of organic farming in Europe, Organi ic Farming in Europe, Economics and Policy, Volume 6,University of Hohenheim: Stuttgart-Hohenheim.

42. Travisi, C. M. & Nijka, P. (2005). Willingness to pay for agricultural environmental safety: evidence from a survey of Milan, Italy, Residents. Department of Management Economics and Industrial Engineering.

43. Van den Ban, A. and Hawkins, H. (1988). Agricultural Extension, Longman Scientific & Technical, Essex.

44. Wheeler, S. (2007). The Barriers to Further Adoption of Organic Farming and Genetic Engineering in Australia: Views of Agricultural Professionals and Their Information Sources. Renewable Agri. Food System, 23(2), 161-170. 43.

45. Wheeler, S. (2008). What influences agriculture professionals views towards organic. Ecological Economics, 65, 145-154.