Document Type : Regular articles


1 Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute

2 Agricultural Project Management Division, Agricultural Development Management Department, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute (ARMTI) Ilorin, Nigeria.

3 Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria

4 Reseach Division, Training Technology Department, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute (ARMTI) Ilorin, Nigeria.

5 Department of Agricultural Education, FCT College of Education, Zuba-Abuja


The study made use of a gender disaggregated data to examine the effect of income on modern healthcare utilization among female and male headed household farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 200 households were randomly selected for the study. A structured questionnaire was used for the purpose of extracting needed information from the respondents. The data collected was analyzed with descriptive statistics and Ordinary least square regression analysis. The mean annual health expenditure of the male and female headed households were #2,810 and #4,010 respectively. The result of regression analysis revealed that access to modern healthcare service, years of schooling, membership of Social group and amount of credit accessed significantly affects utilization of modern heath care among the male farming households heads while household size, years of schooling, access to healthcare service, amount of credit, membership of social group and Income affects the utilization of modern healthcare among the female headed households. The study concluded that income significantly affects utilization of modern healthcare among female headed households when compared with their male counterparts. It is therefore recommended that there should proper awareness of the benefit of using modern healthcare services in farming communities especially among the male headed households.
DOR: 20.1001.1.22517588.2021.


  1. Agbamu, J. U. (2017). Training Needs of Agricultural Media Practitioners in the Niger-Delta Area of Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 1 (2), 32- 40.
  2. Adebisi, O.A., Adebisi, L.O., Oludare, O.T., Daodu, T.O., & Owolabi, M.T. (2021). Effect of Farm Income On the Lifestyle Factors of Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Scientific Papers Series Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development, 21(1), 285-3952
  3. Asenso-Okyere, K., Chiang, C., Thangata, P., & Andam, K.S. (2011). Interactions between health and farm-labour productivity. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.
  4. Ben, W. (2012). Agriculture and the generation problem: Rural youth empowerment and the future of farming. Paper presented at FAC-ISSER Conference, Accra, Ghana. Retrieved on 06/04/2013 from
  5. Bove R., & Valeggia, C. (2009).  Polygyny and women’s health in sub-Saharan Africa. Social science & medicine, 68: 21–29
  6. Eneji, M.A., Juliana, D.V, Onabe, B. J. (2013). Health care expenditure, health status and national productivity in Nigeria. Journal of Economics and International Finance, 5(7), 1-15.
  7. Gujarati, D. N. (2008). Basic econometrics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  8. International Labour Organization (ILO). (2000). Modelling the impact of HIV/AIDS on social security, Geneva: International Labour Organization.
  9. Kwara State Agricultural Development Project. (1996). Agronomy Survey Report, Kwara State Nigeria

10. Mumtaz, Z., Salway, S., Waseem, M., & Umer, N. (2003). Gender-based barriers to primary health care provision in Pakistan: the experience of female providers. Health policy and planning, 18, 261–269.

11. Nash Ojanuga, D., & Gilbert, C. (1992). Women’s access to health care in developing countries. Social science & medicine, 35, 613–617.

12. National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). (2017). Demographic Statistics Bulletin, National Bureau of Statistics.

13. Onah, M. N., & Govender, V. (2014). Out-of-Pocket Payments, Healthcare Access and Utilization in South East Nigeria: A Gender Perspective. PLoS ONE 9(4): e93887 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093887

14. WHO. (2005). Women’s health: a strategy for the African region. World Health Organisation: Region for Africa: World Health Organisation

WHO. (2010). Africa Public Health Information Service – in Partnership with Africa Public Health Alliance & 15%+ Campaign. Health Financing Scorecard.