1 Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

2 Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, Ladoke Akintola university of Technology, Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria


This study was carried out to evaluate the Ekiti State Social Security Scheme (ESSSS) in Nigeria. Specifically, the study estimated the food security status of the beneficiaries and non beneficiaries of the scheme, assessed the effect of the social security scheme on households’ food security status, and identified the constraints to the implementation of the scheme in the state. A three stage random sampling technique was employed to select 200 respondents for the study using a well structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Head Count Ratio (HCR), Food Insecurity Gap (FIG) and Squared Food Insecurity Gap (SFIG) indices, T- test analysis, 5– point Likert type scale and the logistic regression model were the major analytical tools employed for the study. The result of the analysis showed that income from cash transfer make up about 45% of the total income of the benefiting households. Whereas about 39% of the sampled benefiting households were food insecure, the proportion of the non-beneficiaries that were food insecure was as much as 60%. The result of the logistic regression model revealed that access to the social security scheme, gender, marital status and total monthly income of the household were statistically significant and in explaining the food security status of the household. Corruption and political interference were identified as the most important constraints to the programme in the study area. The study recommends that the government should try as much as possible to increase the number of old people benefiting from the programme. [Babatunde, R. O et al. Ekiti State Social Security Scheme (ESSSS) and its Effect on Food Security in Ekiti State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education Systems, 2013; 3(1):45-52]


1. Aboderin I. (2006). Intergenerational Support and Old Age in Africa. New Brunswik: Transaction. 2. Adamchak, D. J., Wilson, A. O., Nyanguru, A and Hampson, J. (1991). Elderly support and Intergenerational transfer in Zimbabwe. An analysis by gender, marital status and place of residence, Gerontologist 3(4): 505-513.
3. Adenegan, K. O and Adewusi, O. A. (2007). Determinants of Food Security Status of Rural Households Living With HIV/AIDS in Southwestern Nigeria. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 10: 9 – 18.
4. Arene, C. J and Anyaeji, J. (2010). Determinants of Food Security among Households in Nsukka Metropolis of Enugu State, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 30(1): 9-16.
5. Babatunde R. O., Adejobi A. O and Fakayode S. B. (2010). Income and Calorie Intake among Farming Households in Rural Nigeria: Results of Parametric and Nonparametric Analysis Journal of Agricultural Science, 2(2): 135-146
6. Babatunde, R. O and Oyatoye, E. T. O. (2005). Food Security and Marketing Problems in Nigeria: The Case of Maize Marketing in Kwara State. The Global Food and Product Chain – Dynamics, Innovations, Conflicts, Strategies, Proceedings of Tropentag. Tielkes, E., Hulsebusch, C., Hauser, I., Deininger, A. and Becker, K. (eds.) 475-484. Published by Centre for Agriculture in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. Available online at
7. Babatunde R. O., Omotesho O. A and Sholotan O. S. (2007). Factors Influencing Food Security Status of Rural Farming Households in North Central Nigeria. Agricultural Journal, 2: 351-357.
8. Croome D., Nyanguru A. C and M. Molisana (2007). The impact of the old age pension on hunger vulnerability: A case-study from the mountain zone of Lesotho. A paper prepared 23 for the Regional Hunger Vulnerability Programme. 50pp.
9. Diaz-Bonilla, E and Robinson, S. (2001). Shaping globalization for poverty alleviation and food security, A 2020 vision for food, agriculture and the environment, Policy Brief 1, IFPRI.
10. Ekiti State Government. (2012). Ekiti N5, 000 Monthly Stipend To Indigent Elders: Measuring The Impacts. The Guardians Newspaper, p. 12; February 23, 2013.
11. FAO/WHO. (2005). Energy and Protein Requirements. World Health Organization Technical Report, Series 724. World Health Organization. P. 206.
12. FAO. (2010). Global Hunger Declining but Still Unacceptably High: International Hunger Targets Difficult to Reach, Economic and Social Development Department Rome.
13. Farrington, J., Slater, R and Holmes, R. (2004). The Search for Synergies between Social Protection and Livelihood Promotion: The Agriculture Case, Working Paper 232. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI).
14. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2004). The State of Food Insecurity in the World: Monitoring progress toward the world food summit and Millennium Development Goals. Rome.
15. Hagen-Zanker, J and Holmes, R. (2012). Social protection in Nigeria: Synthesis report. ODI/UNICEF Nigeria.
16. Holmes, R., and Akinrimisi, B., Morgan,J., and Buck, R. (2012). Social Protection in Nigeria. Mapping programmes and their effectiveness. Overseas Development Institution (ODI).
17. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). (2012). Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty in Nigeria, available at
18. Kakwana, N and Subbarao, K. (2005). Ageing and poverty in Africa and the role of Social Pensioners, African Human Development, World Bank Washington D.C. March, 2005
19. Kaloi, E., Tayebwa, B and Bashaasha, B. (2005). Food security status of households in MwingiDistrict, Kenya. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, 7. pp. 867-87 Available at
20. Lemke, S., Jausen Van Rensburg, F., Voster, H and Ziche, H. (2002). Food Security, Social and Gender Relations in Black South African Households: Ways of Coping and Surviving, in Le Beau, D and Gordon, R. (eds) Challenges for Anthropology in the ‘African Renaissance: A southern African Contribution, Windhoek, University of Namibia Press, pp: 150-162.
21. Maharjan, K. L and Chhetri, A. K. (2006). Household Food Security in Rural Areas of Nepal: Relationship between Socio-Economic Characteristics and Food Security Status. Paper Presented at the International Association of Agricultural Economists’ Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, August 12-26.
22. Mitiku, A., Fufa, B and Tadese, B. (2012). Emperical Analysis of the Determinants of Rural Households Food Security in Southern Ethiopia: The Case of Shashemene District, Basic Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Review, 1(6):132-138.
23. National Bureau of Statistics(NBS). (2011). Annual socio-economic Report, http://www.
24. National Population Commission (NPC) (2006). National Population Commission Report, pp. 3. Available at
25. Nyanguru, A. C. (2003). Income support and the promotion of the rights of the elderly in Lesotho. The African Anthropologist, 10(2):154-179.
26. Nyanguru A. C. (2005). The Rights of Older People in Lesotho, Journal of Social Development in Africa 20(2): 120-125.
27. Ortiz, I and Cummins, M. (2011). ‗Global Inequality: Beyond the Bottom Billion. A Rapid Review of Income Distribution in 141 Countries‘. Social and Economic Policy Working Paper. New York: UNICEF.
28. Sadoulet, E., Janvry, A and Davis, B. (2001). Cash Transfer Programs With Income Multipliers: Procampo In Mexico. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division International Food Policy Research Institute 2033 K Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20006 USA FCND Discussion paper no. 99.
29. Sheffrin, M. S. (2003). Economics: Principles in Action. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
30. Tollens, E. (2002). The Challenges of Poverty Reduction with Particular Reference to Rural Poverty and Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, Working
Papers 31850, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
31. Tshediso, J. S. (2013). Determinants of the Food Security Status of Households Receiving Government Grants in Kwakwatsi, South Africa, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 4(1): 147-153.
32. United Nations Development Report. (2001). Nigerian Human Development Report 2000/2001 Millennium edition, UNDP Lagos.
33. Wilson, A. O., Adamchak D. J., Nyanguru A. C., Hampson J. (1991). A study of well-being of elderly living in three communities in Zimbabwe, Age and Ageing, 20(2): 50-58.