Document Type : Regular articles

Authors

1 PhD Geography and Rural Planning, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,Tehran, Iran.

2 PhD Geography and Rural Planning, Yong Researchers and Elite Club,Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran.

Abstract

The main purpose of this descriptive-correlative study was to design the structural equation model of agricultural entrepreneurship development in villages of Kamfiruz district, Marvdasht County in Iran. The population of the study consisted of all 3106 families of 20 villages. According to the Bartlett et al. table, a sample of 197 households was selected using stratified random sampling technique. The data were collected by the questionnaire consisting of personal and professional features of the respondents and preceding studies related to measuring the components of agricultural entrepreneurial development (including innovativeness, renewal, pro-activeness and risk-taking) and the structures affecting the development of agricultural entrepreneurship in rural areas (including social capital, subjective norms, self-efficacy belief and local institutions). The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts. The construct validity and the composite reliability of the research instrument were tested by estimating the measurement model and they were satisfied after making necessary corrections. The data were analyzed using SPSSwin22 and AMOS21 soft wares. The results showed that there was found an acceptable fitness of the model used in the present study, which confirm the study hypothesis. Based on the villagers opinion, social capital, subjective norms, self-efficacy belief, and local institutes explained 46.8 percent of variance in developing the agricultural entrepreneurship. It is recommended that the role of government and officials in agricultural entrepreneurship should be more highlighted to encourage the villagers in entrepreneurship.

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. Amiri, M. and Rahmani, T. (2006). The effects of social capital groups on economic growth of the provinces in Iran. Journal of Economic Essays, 3 (6), PP.111-152. (in Persian)
  2. Antoncic, B. and Hisrich, R. (2001). Intrapreneurship: Construct refinement and cross-cultural validation. Journal of Business Venturing, 16 (1), PP.495-527.
  3. Bartlett, J. E., Kotrlik, J. W. and Higgins, CH. (2001). Organizational research: determing appropriate sample size in survey research. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19 (1): 43-50.
  4. Bandura, A. (2002). Social Cognitive Theory in Cultural Context. Applied Psychology: An entrepreneurial review, 51 (2): 269-290.
  5. Batjargal, B. (2007). Internet entrepreneurship: social capital, human capital, and performance of internet ventures in China. Research Policy, 36 (1): 605–607.
  6. Bohnstedt, B. and Durbeck, I. (1998). Fitting small and medium sized enterprises for the export market. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 5 (2): 28-31.
  7. Carr, J. C. and Sequeira, J. M. (2007). Prior family business exposure as inter-generational influence and entrepreneurial intent: A Theory of Planned Behavior approach. Journal of Business Research, 60 (1): ­1090-1098.
  8. Campagne, P., Carrere, G. and Valceschini, E. (1990). Three Agricultural Regions of France: Three Types of Pluriactivity. J. Rural Stud, 6(4): 415-422.
  9. Damianos D. and Sluras D. (1996): Farm business and the development of alternative farm enterprises: an empirical analysis in Greece. Journal of Rural Studies, 12 (3), PP. 273-283.

10. Eftekhari, A., Taher-khani, M. and Sojasi-Qaidari, H. (2009). Analysis of factors affecting the development of agricultural entrepreneurship in rural areas. Case Study: the villages of Khodabande loo  County. Journal of Village and Development, 12 (3): 43-72. (in Persian)

11. Enting, L. (2001). Modern Agricultural Entrepreneurship: Management Tasks. Journal of Business Venturing, 2 (1): 5-28.

12. Eskandari, F. (2006). Studying and explaining the strategies of entrepreneurship in Iranian agricultural higher education system (Ph.D. dissertation), Department of Agricultural Extension and Education. Tehran University, Karaj, Iran. (in Persian)

13. Fairlie R. W. and Robb A. M. (2007). Why Are Black-Owned Businesses Less Successful than White-Owned Businesses? The Role of Families, Inheritances, and Business Human Capital. Journal of Labor Economics, 25 (2): 289-323.

14. Farahani, H., Einali, J., and Abdoli, S. (2013). Assessing the role of social capital in the development of rural areas (Case Study: Mashhad-Meighan district of Arak County). Journal of Applied Geographical Sciences, 13 (29): 27-50. (in Persian)

15. Fayolle, A., Gailly, B. and Lassas-Clerc, N. (2006). Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education programmers: a new methodology. Journal of European Industrial Training, 30 (9): 701-720.

16. Hair, J., Black, C., Babin, J. and Anderson, E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis, New York: Prentice Hall Publisher.

17. Hashemi, S. S., Imani, S., Motiee S.H., Qadiri, M. and Rezvani, M.R. (2011). Rural entrepreneurship development  based on local institutes (Case study: Bahabad of Yazd). Journal of Rural Research and Planning, 3 (1): 1-26. (in Persian)

18. Hashemi, S.S., Motiee S.H., Qadiri, M., Rezvani, M.R. and Moghimi, S.M. (2013). Clarifying the role of village administrators and councils in rural entrepreneurship development (Case study: Bahabad of Yazd). Rural studies, 2(1): 93-114. (in Persian)

19. Heilig, K., and Gerhard, M. (2002). European Rural Development. International Institute for Applied System Analysis. Luxembourg, Australia.

20. Heydari-­Sareban, V. (2015). The role of social capital in reinforcing entrepreneurship of rural areas in Ardabil. Journal of Geography and Environmental Planning, 58 (2): 165-178. (in Persian)

21. Hezajoribi, J. (2005). Entrepreneurship, Institute of Economic Affairs, Tehran, Iran. (in Persian)

22. Karimi, S., Chizari, M., Biemans, J. A., and Mulder, M. (2010). Entrepreneurship Education in Iranian Higher Education: The Current State and Challenges. European Journal of Scientific Research, 48 (1): 35-50.

23. Karimi, A., Malekmohamadi, I., Ahmadpour Daryani, M. and Rezvanfar, A. (2011). A Conceptual Model of Intrapreneurship in the Iranian Agricultural Extension Organization: Implications for HRD. Journal of  European  Industrial Train., 35(7): 632-657.

24. Karimi, S. (2014). Rural Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Opportunities, Journal of Entrepreneurship in Agriculture, 1(3): 101-119. (in Persian)

25. Kristiansen, S. (2004). Social networks and business success: the role of subcultures in an African context. Am. J. Econ. Social, 63 (5): 1149-1171.

26. Licht, A. N. and Siegel J. I. (2006). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In Casson et al (Eds.), Oxford Hand book of Entrepreneurship, PP.511-539, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

27. Maleksaeidi, H., Rezaei Moghadam, K. and Ajili, A. (2011). Study of Professional's Knowledge towards Organic Farming in the Agri-Jihad Organization of Fars Province. Iran. Agric. Ext. Edu. J.,6(2): 49-62 (in Persian).

28. Marsden, T. and Smith, E. (2005). Ecological entrepreneurship: sustainable development in local communities through quality food production and local branding. Geo forum, 36 (4): 440-451.

29. Meyer, W., Traikova, D., Buchenrieder, G., Mollers, J., and Xhema, S. (2010). Paper prepared for presentation at the World Bank International Conference on Poverty and Social Inclusion in the Western Balkans W Balkans 2010 Brussels, Belgium, December 14-15, 2010.

30. Moyes, D., Ferri, P., Henderson, F. And Whittam, G. (2015). The stairway to Heaven? The effective use of social capital in new venture creation for a rural business. Journal of Rural Studies, 39 (1):  11-21.

31. Muller, S. and Dato- On, M. (2008). Gender- role orientation as a determinant of entrepreneurial self-efficiency. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 13 (1): 3- 20.

32. Nainggolan, K. (2003). Policies and Programs for Promoting the Development of Agribusiness Enterprises. in: Report of the APO seminar on development of Agribusiness Enterprises, Indonesia, 20-24 November 2000, Published by APO, Tokyo, Japan.

33. Petridou, E. and Glaveli, N, (2008). Rural women entrepreneurship within cooperatives: training support. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 23(8): 262­-277.

34. Rahmanian-Koushkaki, M., Chizari, M. and Havasi, A. (2012). Studying the effective factors on entrepreneurship of students in Islamic Azad University of Ilam. Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, 4 (15): 125-144. (In Persian)

35. Rezaie, R. (2014). The relationship between self-efficacy in order to create entrepreneurship: Adjusting role of gender. Journal of woman in development and policy, 12 (3): 378-404. (in Persian)

36. Rezvani, M.R. (2011). Planning of rural development in Iran. 4th edition, Ghomes Publication. (In Persian)

37. Sharifzadeh, A., Mahbobi, M.R. and Arabion, A. (2009): Determining the factors developing agricultural business in Golestan province. Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, 1(4): 85-112. (In Persian) 

38. Sutton, S.A. (2010). Rethinking commercial revitalization: A neighborhood small business perspective. Economic Development Quarterly, 24(4): 352-371.

39. Toghraei, M. T. and Rezvani, M. (2012). Mapping of social capital in entrepreneurial marketing activities in small business. Journal of New Marketing Research, 2 (3): 87-106. (In Persian)

40. Tiepoh, G. and Reimer, B. (2007). Social capital, information flows, and income creation in rural Canada: Across community analysis. Journal of Socioeconomic, 33 (1): 426-427.

41. Torfi, A., Kalantari, Kh. and Mohammadi, Y. (2011). Effective components on social capital in rural production cooperatives in Koohdasht County of Lorestan Province. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(24): 5512-5519. (in Persian)

42. Wauters, E., Bielders, C., Poesen, J., Govers, G., & Mathijs, E. (2010). Adoption of soil conservation practices in Belgium: An examination of the theory of planned behavior in the agri-environmental domain. Land Use Policy, 27(1): 86-94.

43. Yadollahi-Farsi, J. and Razavi, S.M. (2012). The role of social capital and human capital in rural youth entrepreneurship in the villages of Karbal district. Human Geography Research, 79: 103-115. (In Persian).